İngilizce Meslek ve Tanıtımı

tarantula90107.05.2014 - 20:04
Veterinarian (Veteriner)

If you like animals and science, you might want to be a veterinarian. Veterinarians take care of sick and injured animals. Like doctors, they perform surgery and give medicine to animals.

When an animal is sick, vets examine it to find out why. They look for clues in the way an animal looks, acts, and smells. For example, if a dog is walking in a strange way, that might be because it hurt its leg. Vets need to look carefully because animals can’t say what is wrong.

Vets also give blood tests, x-rays, and other tests, looking for clues about an animal’s illnesses. Then, vets decide what kind of medicine or treatment the animal needs.

Vets prevent problems by giving vaccinations and check-ups and fixing teeth. They also teach owners how to feed and train their animals.

Vets use special tools to perform surgeries. They fix broken bones, take out tumors, replace knees and hips, and more. Vets also treat and cover wounds. They need to be ready to see blood, organs, and bones.

Most vets treat small pets, including dogs, cats, and gerbils. But a few focus on large animals, such as sheep, cows, and horses. Large-animal vets usually drive to ranches and stables where their patients live. They check for infections in the animals and give advice to the animals’ owners. Often, they help when the animals give birth.

A few vets work in zoos and aquariums. They care for zebras, sharks, and other wild creatures.

In addition to helping sick animals, vets can work as animal inspectors, checking to make sure that farm animals are healthy and that their living spaces are clean. Another option for vets is doing scientific research. They try to make new medicines.

Vets work in many different places. Vets who do research work in clean, dry laboratories. Most vets who take care of small pets work in animal clinics and hospitals. A few work in large hospitals with the most advanced equipment.

Many vets supervise technicians and assistants. And many own their own business and are their own boss.

Because animals can get sick at anytime, vets often work long hours. Those in group practices may take turns working weekends or evenings and dealing with emergencies.

Many vets like their work because they can be with animals every day. But because some animals are scared or hurt, they sometimes try to bite, kick, or scratch their vets.

Vets who work with large animals often work outside in all kinds of weather. This work can sometimes be dirty.

Secretary (Sekreter)

Secretaries make appointments. They put files in order. They also write letters and answer the phone. Some make travel plans. Secretaries use computers, fax machines, and copiers. Secretaries make sure that the information that leaves the office is right. Other people in the office rely on secretaries to keep things going well.

Some secretaries are called executive secretaries or administrative assistants. These secretaries often have more duties. Some make reports and train others. Some secretaries work in one field, such as medicine or law. Medical secretaries help doctors keep track of patients. Legal secretaries work with lawyers.

Most work in offices. These offices can be in companies small or large. They work in hospitals, schools, or banks. Secretaries often must sit for a long time, usually in front of a computer. Sometimes this causes eye strain or wrist problems.

Some companies allow them to work at different times of the day. They also might do some of their work at home. Most secretaries work 40 hours a week, but some work part time.

Psychologist (Psikolog)

Psychologists study the human mind. They also try to explain why people act as they do. They do research to test their ideas about people’s actions. Their research methods vary. They may get data from lab tests, interviews, and surveys.

Psychologists usually specialize. Some help people with mental problems, while others help people deal with divorce and death of a family member or friend. They work with people of all ages, but some work mainly with old people or young people.

Psychologists help people deal with problems of everyday living. Some work in schools to help students with behavior problems. Others may help solve problems in places where people work.

Some psychologists do research at colleges and private research centers. They study behavior using human beings and sometimes using animals, such as mice and monkeys.

Working conditions vary. Some work as part of a team. Some psychologists have their own offices and set their own hours. However, they may also work evenings and weekends to meet with their clients. Those who work in schools and clinics usually work regular hours.

Pilot (Pilot)

Pilots fly airplanes and helicopters to do many jobs. Most pilots fly people and cargo from place to place. Some pilots test new planes, fight fires, do police work, or rescue people who are hurt or in danger.

Before they take off, pilots plan their flight carefully. They check their plane to make sure that it is working properly. They also make sure that baggage or cargo has been loaded correctly. They check the weather forecast to see if they will run into any bad weather on their trip. They then decide what route they should take, and how high and fast they should fly.

Takeoff and landing are often challenging and require a great deal of piloting skill. As a result, pilots must be especially careful during those times. The rest of the flight can be fairly easy if the weather is good because planes have computers and other gauges to tell pilots if their trip is going according to plan. These gauges show whether there is enough fuel, whether the weather is changing, and whether the plane is on course. Pilots must check monitor these gauges at all times during the flight to be sure that all is going well. If problems come up, the pilots must quickly take steps to solve them.

The law says that pilots who work for an airline cannot fly more than 100 hours a month or more than 1,000 hours a year. Most airline pilots fly about 75 hours a month, and work another 75 hours a month at other parts of the job. When they are flying, airline pilots often stay away from home overnight. Airlines have flights at all hours of the day and night. This means that airline pilots are often asked to work odd hours.

Pilots who do not work for the airlines can have unusual work schedules, too. For example, they may fly 30 hours one month and 90 hours the next. Most of them do not have to stay away from home overnight, but they may have to work odd hours.

Pilots who fly very long distances may have “jet lag.” This is fatigue caused by moving through different time zones. The work of pilots who test new planes may be dangerous. Pilots who work on farms or who help police and firefighters also might get hurt on their jobs.

Flying does not involve physical work. However, pilots can feel a lot of stress because they know that they are responsible for the safety of their passengers. They must be careful and quick to react if something goes wrong.

Designer (Tasarımcı)

Designers have a desire to create. They mix knowledge with artistic ability. Designers focus in a specific area of design such as cars or Web sites.

Designers make drafts or drawings by hand or with a computer. Most use computer-aided design (CAD) tools. Designers need up-to-date computer and telephone equipment.

Most designers specialize, but a few do work in more than one area. For example, commercial and industrial designers develop man-made products like toys and furniture. Fashion designers make clothing and accessories like belts and hats. Floral designers cut and set up live, dried, or fake flowers into designs. Graphic designers use computer software to design newspapers, publications, and Internet Web pages. Interior designers plan the interiors of places like homes, offices, and hotels. Merchandise displayers and window dressers, or visual merchandisers, plan and set up windows and interiors of retail stores. Set and exhibit designers create sets for movie, television, and theater productions.

Designers may work in their own office or in their clients’ home or office. They set their schedules to please their clients. They may work long hours, including evenings or weekends, to meet deadlines.

Some may travel. Those who are paid by contract are under stress to please clients and to find new ones to keep a steady income.

Chemist (Kimyager)

Chemicals are a big part of the physical world around us. Everything is made of chemicals. Chemists and materials scientists find ways to make chemicals useful to us. They also try to improve things that people use daily, such as paint, medicine, and cosmetics, as well as cars and airplanes. Chemists also search for new chemicals in nature. They search for ways to save energy and reduce pollution. Their research on living things helps doctors, farmers, and food preparers do their jobs better.

Part of a chemist’s job is to search for new facts about chemicals. Some chemists watch what happens when they mix two or more chemicals together. They explain what they might see, smell, or feel. Chemists use computers to conduct experiments and analyze the results. They write down the results and report them to others. From their research, they can create new products. Chemists can also improve products we already have and show us new ways to use them. Chemists specialize in one of the many different types of chemistry.

Some chemists and materials scientists work in factories. They tell plant workers which ingredients to use to make a chemical. They also tell the workers how long to mix chemicals, and how hot or cold the mixture should be. They watch the whole process to make sure that they get the right product at the end. They test samples to make sure they meet industry and government rules.

Chemists and materials scientists usually work regular hours in offices and laboratories. Labs have many kinds of equipment to do experiments. Research chemists spend most of their time in labs. Sometimes they work in offices when they have to write reports on their lab work. Some of the large labs have factories or places where workers make examples of the real products. For example, materials scientists may work closely with engineers and other workers in manufacturing facilities. Chemists may also do some of their research in a factory or outdoors. For example, when they go outside, they can get samples of the air to test for pollution. Some chemists work around dangerous chemicals. They have to wear protective clothing and follow rules to keep them safe on their jobs.

Doctor (Doktor)

Being a doctor comes with a lot of responsibility. A doctor’s patients rely on their physician for the best medical help possible!

There are lots of different kinds of doctors. General Practitioners, Family Doctors, and Pediatricians (doctors just-for-kids) are the types most people see on a regular basis for things like the flu, a fever, a check-up or physical, a vaccination, and other common needs. Other doctors specialize in specific health fields or particular body systems. Some examples of specialists include cardiologists (heart and blood), dermatologists (skin), allergists and immunologists (allergic reactions and immune system), neurologists (brain and nervous system), and internists (internal organs). There are also surgeons, whose specialty is performing operations!

Not all doctors do the same thing every day. Some doctors work in an office, others in the hospital, and some in places you might not think of, like laboratories where they develop new medicines and research cures! Doctors see patients, run and interpret tests, prescribe medicines or treatments, talk to patients about how to stay healthy, respond to emergencies, and regularly read books and medical journals or take classes to keep their knowledge up-to-date! Most doctors work very long hours and have to be available for emergencies.

Nurse (Hemşire)

Nurses do a huge range of important things that help keep people healthy, make them better when they’re sick, and support patients and their families!

Nurses work in lots of different places like hospitals, doctor’s offices, clinics, people’s homes, schools, camps, and more! Depending on where he or she works and the level of training they’ve had, a nurse can do a big variety of different things. Some nurses take temperatures, give shots, administer medicines, and check patients’ blood pressure and pulse. Other nurses might prescribe medications, order tests, and help diagnose a patient’s problem. There are nurses who assist doctors during surgery, and nurses who help deliver babies!

Lots of nurses work closely with patients and families, helping them, supporting them, and educating them about things they need to know take care of their illnesses and stay healthy and happy!

Teacher (Öğretmen)

Teachers plan lessons, which means they spend time finding fun and interesting ways to introduce their students to new information and make sure they understand it. Teachers enjoy getting to know their students and figuring out how they learn best.

Teachers also spend time grading papers, making tests, writing report cards and talking with their students’ parents to let them know how well their children are doing in class. By talking with parents, teachers can also learn more about their students and figure out the best way to help them if need be.

Teachers meet with the grown-ups at their school, like the principal and other teachers. They share ideas and find new ways to make their school a great place.

There are teachers for small children, teachers for elementary, middle and high school kids, and even teachers for college kids and grown-ups!

Scientist (Bilimadamı)

Scientists are people who try to figure out how the many different things in our world and our universe work. This includes scientists who study the biggest galaxies to those who study the tiniest atoms! Scientists use special methods to examine what they’re studying by proposing an explanation to a question or problem, collecting evidence and running tests, and then forming a conclusion based on the results!

A scientist might work in a laboratory, out in nature, at a special office, as a professor, as a writer or journalist, and more! To answer puzzling questions, scientists might do everything from performing tests and collecting surveys to brainstorming and daydreaming! Scientists use all kinds of different tools for their jobs: Computers, telescopes, microscopes, rulers, thermometers, barometers, scales, beakers and test tubes, and much more!

Farmer (Çiftçi)

Some farmers raise animals like cows, chickens and fish. Other farmers raise plants like fruits, vegetables and grains. There are even farmers who grow plants for people to enjoy in their gardens! Farmers make a living by selling their plants, animals and animal products.

Being a farmer is hard work! Farmers care for their animals by giving them food and water. They plant and harvest crops. They make sure their plants and animals stay healthy. They also take care of the machines that help them farm, like tractors and plows.

Lawyer (Avukat)

A lawyer is a person who has studied the law and is an expert in the way their country’s rules and government work. A lawyer’s job is to give people advice about the law and how it works, since the law can be very complicated!

Many lawyers spend their time meeting with clients, preparing legal documents (like wills, contracts, and leases), and attending trials. At a trial, the lawyer represents his or her client and either defends the client against charges, or prosecutes (brings charges against) the accused. More than anything else, lawyers usually spend a lot of their time doing research! Because the law is constantly changing, lawyers must spend time staying up-to-date on information to give their clients the best advice possible!

Police / Police Officer (Polis /Polis Memuru)

The job of a Police Office is very important! Because law enforcement is needed all the time, Police Officers work during the night and on weekends and holidays. Some Police Officers spend their days patrolling on foot or in special vehicles, looking for any types of law violations, handing out tickets, and responding to emergencies. At other times, Police Officers work on investigations or make arrests. They also must write up reports and sometimes appear in court.

Police work can be tense and dangerous. Police Officers must be attentive at all times so they can respond as needed in emergencies, and they must work in all kinds of weather conditions, too. To become a Police Officer, you usually must go through special training at a police academy to learn about things like law, investigations, and self-defense. Police Officers must pass exams to show fitness and need to have characteristics like honesty and good judgment to help them perform their difficult job!

Electrical Engineer (Elektrik Mühendisi)

Electrical engineers design new and better electronics. They also test equipment and solve problems. A project starts by deciding what the new electronics will do. Then, the engineer designs the circuits and other parts of the electronics. Engineers might draw their designs using a computer.

Later, the engineers test their designs and make them better. Many projects don’t work at first. The engineers have to figure out why and then fix them.

Electrical engineers work on many kinds of products. They might work on cars, robots, cell phone systems, the lighting and wiring in buildings, and radar and navigation systems.

Some examples of high-tech projects that electrical and electronics engineers work on are global positioning systems that can pinpoint a car’s location, giant generators that can power entire cities, or a new design for an airplane’s electrical system.

Engineers work in offices, labs, or industrial plants.

Bus Driver (Otobüs Şoförü)

The job of a bus driver goes beyond just steering the bus! There are lots of different bus drivers who drive different types of vehicles, from school buses to public transportation buses to tour buses and more!

Bus drivers are responsible for the safety of their passengers, which can sometimes be as many as 100 people! Because of traffic and weather problems, the job of a bus driver can sometimes be difficult!

Dentist (Diş Hekimi)

Dentists care for their patients’ teeth by treating problems that exist and by giving patients the knowledge and tools they need to keep their teeth healthy in the future. For example, dentists remind their patients about the importance of brushing, flossing and eating foods that are tooth-friendly! A dentist examines the teeth, gums and mouth tissue of patients with help from equipment such as mouth mirrors and X-rays. Filling cavities, removing tooth decay, fitting patients with crowns and dentures, and pulling teeth when necessary are examples of the many duties of a dentist!

Architect (Mimar)

Architects design houses and buildings. They plan offices and apartments. They design schools, churches, and airport terminals. Their plans involve far more than a building’s looks. They must ensure that buildings are safe and strong and that they suit the needs of the people who use them.

The architect and client first discuss what the client wants. The architect sometimes helps decide if a project would work at all or if it would harm the environment. The architect then creates drawings for the client to review. They may be involved in all stages of the construction of a building.

If the ideas are OK, the architect draws up the final plans. These plans show how the building will look and how to build it. The drawings show the beams that hold up the building. They show the air-conditioner, furnace, and ventilating systems. The drawings show how the electricity and plumbing work. Architects used to use pencil and paper to draw their plan, but today most architects use computers. Architects generally work in comfortable conditions because they spend most of their time in offices. However, they spend some time at building sites to see how projects are going.

Architects may feel stressed sometimes. Most architects work 40 hours a week, but they may need to work nights and weekends in order to meet deadlines.



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